- Proportional (PR) systems represent subgroups according to a party or candidate's vote share.
- Semi-Proportional (Semi-PR) systems combine elements of proportional and plurality-majority systems. Semi-PR systems are often more representative than non-PR systems because they ensure that political minorities are at least somewhat represented.
- Plurality-Majority systems allow the candidate with the most votes to win, no matter how slim the margin.
Voting systems are the rules and procedures that determine how people are elected. Each system informs how ballots are designed, how people cast their votes, how the results are counted, and how the winners are determined. The type of voting system can greatly impact voter turnout, the role of political parties, candidate engagement, and representation in government.
To read more about the voting systems used around the world, see our International Voting Systems Memo.