By the Numbers

RepresentWomen compiles information about the current status of women's representation through research from other organizations as well as through our own original research. 

To learn more about our research and to see how each U.S. state ranks in terms of women's representation, check out our Gender Parity Index.        

Click on a topic to begin.

U.S. Overview

Women are 51% of the population in the U.S. but make up only:

  • 27% of Congress at large 
  • 24% of the U.S. Senate 
  • 27% of the U.S. House of Representatives 
  • 0% of presidents of the United States 
  • 30% of statewide elected executives of any kind
  • 31% of state legislators
  • 31% of the largest cities' mayors 
  • 25% of mayors in cities with populations over 30,000

For certain demographics, the numbers are even worse

Women of color, Republican women, young women, and low-income women are especially underrepresented.

Learn more about how demographics affect representation

 

In 2021 women of color only make up:

  • 9% of the total members of Congress
  • 34% of the women serving in Congress
  • 8% of total state legislators
  • 26.5% of all female state legislators
  • 14% of mayors in the nation’s 100 largest cities 

In 2021 Republican women only make up:

  • 20% of female Congressional members
  • 8% of women serving in the U.S. Senate
  • 26% of women serving in the U.S. House
  • 33% of women serving as governors
  • 33% of women state legislators

 

Source: Center for American Women in Politics at Rutgers University (CAWP)

 

 

Women's Representation in Local Government

Find out how voting reforms can impact local elections

 

Executive Office

As of 2019, women serve as mayors in 27 of the 100 largest cities, according to the Center for American Women in Politics at Rutgers University.

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Legislative Bodies

As of 2019, among the largest 100 cities in the United States, the average percentage of women on city councils with only at-large seats is 39% while the average percentage of women on city councils with only single member district seats is 32%. When city councils have both at-large seats and single-member district seats, the average percentage of women is 48%. 

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Women's Representation in State Government

Find out how voting reforms can impact state elections

Statewide Executive Office

Only 9 out of 50 U.S. states have women governors, 17 women serve as lieutenant governors, and 68 women hold other statewide offices such as attorney general or secretary of state. 19 states have never elected a woman governor.

infogram_0_4865b94b-0eaa-499c-ae83-8472ccc64a2cWomen Statewide Executiveshttps://e.infogram.com/js/dist/embed.js?Bawtext/javascript

Number of women serving: 94 out of 310
Percentage of positions held by women: 30%
Number of Republicans: 41
Number of Democrats: 51
Number of Nonpartisan:


Percentage of women in state elected executive positions who are women of color:
19%
First woman elected in her own right:
 Ella Grasso (CT) in 1975

infogram_0_8bd78c25-c242-4498-aabc-1a8f27a0c650Women Governors State by Statehttps://e.infogram.com/js/dist/embed.js?BIstext/javascript

 

State Legislatures

Average number of women serving: 2,300 out of 7,400 seats
Percentage of women: 31%
Number of Republicans: 758
Number of Democrats: 1,511
Number of nonpartisans: 13
Number of independents: 6

Number of Progressives: 2

Women of color: 606
First women elected: Clara Cressingham, Carrie C. Holly, and Frances Klock - 1894

infogram_0_8ab466b1-010d-4ce0-aab8-845eec8147afPercentage of women in state legislatureshttps://e.infogram.com/js/dist/embed.js?qd8text/javascript

infogram_0_8d859155-74cb-482d-80bd-66be0bc8d0e5Women in State Legislatures 1993-2019 (By the Numbers)https://e.infogram.com/js/dist/embed.js?FfHtext/javascript

Women's Representation in Congress

Find out how voting reforms can impact federal elections

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U.S. House of Representatives

Number of women serving: 119* out of 430 (+5 vacancies)
Percentage of women: 27%
Number of Republicans: 31
Number of Democrats: 88
Women of color: 46* (41D, 5R)
First woman elected: Jeannette Rankin (MT) in 1916 
*Does not include women delegates from the U.S. Territories
Fact sheet from the Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University

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U.S. Senate

Number of women serving: 24 out of 100
Percentage of women serving: 24%
Number of Republicans: 8
Number of Democrats: 16
Women of color: 3 (3D, 0R)
Most represented states: WA, MN
First woman elected: Hattie Caraway (AR) in 1932 

Fact sheet from the Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University

infogram_0_3444ea33-7415-45eb-a3fc-f9bc4c38045fWomen in the Senatehttps://e.infogram.com/js/dist/embed.js?dXftext/javascript

Women's Representation in U.S. Territories

Four out of the six (66.7%) non-voting representatives in the House of Representatives are women. By contrast, only 136 out of the 535 (25.4%) elected members of Congress from the fifty states are women. 

infogram_0_us_territories_vs_the_50_states_in_percentage_of_elected_delagates_that_are_womenUS Territories in Comparison to the 50 US States in Terms of Percentage of Female Elected Representativeshttps://e.infogram.com/js/dist/embed.js?YfCtext/javascript

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Mayor: Muriel Bowser (D) has served as mayor since 2015. Sharon Pratt Kelly served as mayor from 1991-1995. She was also the first African American woman to serve as mayor of a major American city.

City Council: Eight of the District's 13 city council members (62%) are women, four out of 13 are black women (31%).

Delegate to U.S. House: Eleanor Holmes Norton has served as the District's one non-voting representative in Congress since 1991.

 

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Governor: Wanda Vasquez became governor in 2019. The only other woman governor was Síla Calderon, from 2001-2005.

Legislature: As of 2020, fourteen of the 81 seats (17%) are held by women.

Mayors: San Juan, the largest city in Puerto Rico, has a female mayor. In total, nine of the 78 mayors are women (11.5%).

Delegate to the U.S. House: Jenniffer González was elected Resident Commissioner in 2016 and is the first woman to hold the position. She faces re-election in 2025.

 

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Governor:  Lourdes "Lou" Aflague Leon Guerrero, elected in 2018 is the first women governor of Guam.

Legislature: Six of the 15 seats (40%) are held by women. 

Mayors: Three out of 20 (15%) mayors are women.

Delegate to the U.S. House: Madeleine Bordallo (D) was Guam's first woman non-voting delegate since 2003. Her final term ended in 2018.

 

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Governor: No woman has served as governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Legislature: Four of 15 seats (26.7%) are held by women.

Delegate to the U.S. House: Stacey Plaskett (D) currently serves as the delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives, starting in 2015. Her predecessor, Donna Christian-Christensen, served from 1997-2015.

 

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Governor: No woman has served as governor of the Northern Mariana Islands

Legislature: Three of the 20 seats (15%) are held by women. This is the second-lowest percentage in the country.

Delegate to the U.S. House: No woman has served as the delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives

 

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Governor: No woman has served as governor of American Samoa

Legislature: Two out of 39 seats (5.1%) are held by women. This is the lowest of any state or territory in the country

Delegate to the U.S. House: Amata Coleman Radewagen has served as American Samoa's first female non-voting delegate since 2015

Women's Representation Internationally

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The United States continues to rank well below our democratic allies for women's political representation, according to the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Visit their site to find the most up to date information on international women's representation. Click here to see a full list of how countries rank for women’s representation, what type of voting system is used, and whether or not they have a quota.

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Women's Representation in the Judiciary

Women attend law school at equal rates as men but are underrepresented as judges

  • 33% of Supreme Court Justices
  • 33% of Federal Judges (excluding the Supreme Court)
  • 33% of State Judges

Out of the 114 justices that have served on the Supreme Court, there have only been four women - three of whom are currently on the bench. Fifty nine of the 175 active judges currently sitting on the thirteen federal courts of appeal are female (33%).

These numbers are even worse for women of color

  • 11% of Supreme Court Justices
  • 5% of Federal Judges (excluding the Supreme Court)
  • 8% of State Judges

Women of color are less represented than any other demographic group, as their numbers (at the state level) represent a mere 40% of their relative numbers in the general population. Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor is the first and only woman of color to sit on the Supreme Court. 

Is representation improving?

When in office, President Obama facilitated significant progress for women judges and more than doubled the number of women of color to federal judicial positions. 42 percent of his confirmed nominees to federal courts were women. 

Unfortunately, this progress does not seem to be continuing under President Trump, who has appointed 84 active federal judges, with only 20 of them being women. 

 

Learn more about women in the judiciary

Sources: Federal Judicial Center Brennan Center for Justice, Center for American ProgressNational Women's Law Center, The Gavel Gap, Federal Judicial Center, National Association of Women Judges