Pages tagged "Topic: International Women"
Over half (55%) of Arab states ensure women's representation through gender quotas (mostly reserved seats). Our research indicates that women in countries with gender quotas are better represented by women than they are in countries without quotas. But even in countries that have achieved higher levels of representation, more needs to be done to ensure that women have meaningful opportunities to lead. To learn more about the status of women's representation in Arab states, refer to our full brief.
The Soviet Union, also known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was established in 1922 with 15 republics, making it the largest country in the world- for reference, it was 2.5 times larger than the United States and was one-sixth of Earth’s land surface. On December 26th, 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved, resulting in the creation of 15 new and independent states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
Under the Soviet Union, women’s rights were enshrined by the constitution, which guaranteed equal rights for women in all aspects of life, including the economic, cultural, social, and political spheres. Soviet women were actively involved in the labor force and in domestic affairs- this “double burden” also meant that they experienced time poverty, or a lack of adequate time for leisure and rest. Despite this, Soviet women were still 49% of all local officials and 32% of all federal officials in 1980. However, Soviet women were less likely to be promoted within the government hierarchy, and some women also preferred local politics due to their time poverty, which can explain women’s reduced levels of representation between the local and federal government. Throughout the state’s existence, women’s political representation greatly fluctuated, especially in political party leadership, which is proof of the inadequate implementation of their 30% gender quota.
Why Read This Brief? This brief chooses to analyze these 15 post-Soviet states primarily because their constitutions, political parties, electoral systems, and sociocultural attitudes have all been developed in the last 30 years. Being some of the most newly formed states in the world, these post-Soviet states are still in the process of expanding their legal codes, updating their electoral codes and institutions, and creating mechanisms to monitor the realization of gender equality. Each country in this region has experienced similar and unique barriers in their journey to state development, as well as some resounding successes that other countries should consider implementing within their own governments. Overall, this region is one of the most unique in the world, and there are many successes and challenges which can be identified to enhance our understanding of both the post-Soviet states and governments around the world.
In many countries around the world, women are entering political office at higher rates than in the United States. As of January 2022, the U.S. was tied with Egypt and the Philippines in 72nd place for the number of women (120 of 433, or 28%) in the lower legislature, the U.S. House of Representatives. Twenty years ago, there were half as many women in the U.S. House, and the country ranked 59th for women's representation.
In 2020, RepresentWomen released a report analyzing the impact electoral rules and systems have on women's representation. We found that countries with proportional systems and gender quotas were more likely to have women present in their national legislature. Our report, "Achieving Gender Parity: Systems Strategies Around the World," also introduces new research on women heads of state and government, women in executive cabinets around the world, the use of ranked-choice voting internationally, and the role women's representation has on democratic rankings.
Progress toward gender parity in elected office in the United States has been slow, especially in comparison to other nations. Most countries that rank above the United States for women's political representation have adopted recruitment rules and voting systems that level the playing field for women candidates. When examining these other countries, it is clear that reaching gender parity in elected and appointed office requires intentional action and policy reform.
The 'Group of Twenty' (G20) Summit is an annual international forum for the governments and central bankers of the Group of Seven (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, and the European Union. These economies represent the greatest percentage of the Gross World Product, world trade, the global population, and world land area.
For the G20 Osaka Summit, RepresentWomen prepared a series of infographics that illustrate how well women are politically represented in each.
Women won a record number of races in the November 2018 midterm elections and now hold 102 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union, which tracks women's representation in national legislatures, the U.S. now ranks 77th in the world for women in politics; in 1998, the U.S. ranked 60th. The U.S. ranks further behind the rest of the world than it did 20 years ago - even with significant gains for women - because other nations have adopted recruitment practices and voting systems that create more opportunities for women to run, win, serve, and lead.
This report covers a progression of gender quota reforms in Latin America and the EU member countries, which were at the forefront of adopting gender quota reforms through legislated quotas and voluntary party quotas that increased the proportion of women parliamentarians. The case of the European Union (EU) provides an opportunity to see an institutional approach to gender equality, whereas the Latin American countries illustrate the region's overall commitment to gender equality and women's political representation. This report includes the best practices and challenges faced by countries from both regions but focuses on the role of quotas as enforcement mechanisms for women's political representation.